The house at Cliveden, originally built by the second duke of Buckingham in 1666 as a retreat for entertaining friends and his mistress, was rebuilt twice after fires in 1795 and 1849. Overlooking the Thames in Taplow, Buckinghamshire, the palatial house and its extensive gardens were reimagined again in 1893 as an Italianate masterpiece by William Waldorf Astor, the first Viscount Astor. More info at